Attachment Dynamics at Children of 9-12 years old with Divorced Parents in Elbasan, Albania

  • Irena Xhaferri University of Elbasan
Keywords: family, divorce, attachment, self- esteem, shame and guilt


Divorce is a world phenomenon that affects not only the two parents but children too. Divorce is a wound of Albanian society extended during this time of transition. Parents divorce with each other and sometimes they "divorce" from their children. For a child, losing one parent is the same thing with dying.

The aim of this study besides recognizing the phenomenon of divorce of parents and its importance for children of 9-12 years old to explore the effects of divorce of parents at attachment dynamics, self-esteem and shame and guilt.

The methodology of this study is: attachment questionnaire, self-esteem questionnaire (Rosenberg) and shame and guilt questionnaire applied at 100 children of divorced families and 100 children of non divorced families at 9-years system at 12 schools in the city of Elbasan.

This study proved all hypothesis and objectives and results that children of divorced families have more shame and guilt feelings than children of intact families. They feel guilty about the divorce of their parents. We, also, came to an end that children of divorced families have lower rates of self esteem than children of intact families. It was a very large number of children of intact families that had secure attachment compared to children of divorced families where non secure/anxious attachment. A characteristic of divorced children was the presence of avoidant and disorganized attachment among them.

It was recommended that parent should not discuss their divorce in the presence of their children, should explain that divorce is for parents and not for children and is not children fault about the divorce.


Amato, P.R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(3), 355–370.

Amato, P. R. and Booth, Alan (1996) A Prospective Study of Divorce and Parent-Child Relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58(2), 356-365.

Ahrons, C.R. (2007). Family ties after divorce: Long-term implications for children. Family Process, 46(1), 53–65.

Boeree, C. G., (2004).Teoritë e personalitetit [Personality theories].Tiranë

Booth, C.,Clarke-Stewart, K. A., McCartney, K., Owen, M. T., & Vandell, D. L. (2000). Effects of parental separation and divorce on very young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(2), 304-326.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment. New York: Basic Books

Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28(5), 759-755.

Clewell, T (2005) “Mourning beyond melancholia: Freud’s psychoanalysis of loss”, f. 43, 44, 45

Coopersmith, S.(1981). The Self-Esteem Inventories. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Craig. A. E. (2007). Divorce and the next generation. Haworth Clinical Practice Press

Dervishi, Z. (2003). Sociologjia [ Sociology]. Tiranë

Ferguson, H Stegge & I Damhuis ; “ Children`s understandig of Guil and Shame” Journal “Child Devolepment” 1991, 62. Tamara /

Ferraris, A. O., (2001). Dire il Divorzio, Psicologia Contemporanea, n. 167

Forehand, R., Wierson, M., McCombs, A., Thomas, R., Fauber, L.A., Kempton, T., & Long, N. (1991). A short-term longitudinal examination of young adolescent functioning following divorce: The role of family factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 97-111.

Fraser, S. (1996) . Guilt & Shame in children: Relationship with empathy and aggression. Simon Fraser University.

Pettijohn, T.F (1996). Psikologjia, një hyrje konçize [Psychology- a concise introduction]. Tiranë

How to Cite
Xhaferri, I. (2016). Attachment Dynamics at Children of 9-12 years old with Divorced Parents in Elbasan, Albania. Postmodernism Problems, 6(1), 35-44. Retrieved from