Direct Democracy at the Local Level in Poland

  • Maria Marczewska-Rytko Maria Curie Sklodowska University in Lublin
Keywords: direct democracy, local level, Poland, citizen participation, referendum


Direct democracy was not known in Poland in the period before the World War II while in People’s Poland there were no proper conditions to implement it. The forms of direct democracy at the local level are village meetings, general meetings of people in a housing estate, consultations with gmina inhabitants, and a gmina referendum (local referendum). In a housing estate (osiedle) but not in a town district (dzielnica), direct democracy is admissible in the form of the general assembly of the estate. Changes in the current binding model of local authorities entail changes in the decisions concerning referendums. An example of such modifications can be the direct elections of the commune head (wójt), town mayor or town president.

How to Cite
Marczewska-Rytko, M. (2013). Direct Democracy at the Local Level in Poland. Postmodernism Problems, 3(1), 1-10. Retrieved from