Advertising Agencies Ownership and Management in Nigeria. What is the Level of Involvement of Female Professionals?

  • Rotimi Williams Olatunji University of Ibadan
  • Omoye Mary Akhagba University of Ibadan
  • Beatrice Adeyinka Laninhun
Keywords: Advertising, Agency management, Agency ownership, Development, Female professionals, gender


The numerical strength and power of women in many sectors of the Nigerian economy are on the increase. But in Nigeria, little is known of female participation in advertising agency management. The objectives of the study are to determine the proportion of female participation in advertising agency management; the perception of female professionals on their degree of involvement in decision-making and advertising agencies' ownership; as well as investigate the extent to which female professionals are satisfied with their working environment in advertising agencies in Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted which involved the use of 18-item close- and open-ended questionnaire. Using a combination of census, purposive and convenience sampling techniques, a sample size of 110 female advertising professionals, drawn from 20 (or 26%) of the existing 78 officially registered advertising agencies in Nigeria, participated in the study. The study finds that: 76 % of the female respondents agreed that there are more male employees in advertising agencies in Nigeria compared to females; 76.4% agreed that more female employees in advertising agencies belong to the junior category; and 67% are dissatisfied with the level of female involvement in advertising agency ownership. Participants agreed that working environment in advertising agencies is friendly to female professionals. The implications of these findings for the development at the industry and national levels are presented in the discussion of findings and recommendations.


Becker, C. (1945). Freedom and responsibility in the American way of life. New York:

Alfred A. Knopf.

Bosman. J. (2005, November 22). “MEDIA: Stuck at the edges of the Ad Game”, New York Times.

Bryson, V . ( 2003). Feminist political theory : an introduction. New York: Palgrave


Chavez, M.E. (2014). “Scheherezades: A thousand and one stories of women in

community radio”, (pp. 47-49). In Monteiel, A. V. (Ed.). Media and Gender: A Scholarly Agenda for the Global Alliance and Media Gender. Paris: UNESCO.

Costa, J.A. (1994). Gender issues and consumer behaviour. California: Sage

Publications, Inc.

Hall, E. (2000,November 24). The myth and the reality: Emma Hall reports on the IPA’s second

landmark report into women and the work-life balance in advertising. Campaign.

García-González, A., and Piñeiro-Otero, T. (2011). Women in advertising production. Study of the Galician advertising sector from a gender perspective. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 66, 505-525. La La Laguna University. DOI: 10.4185/RLCS-66-2011-943-505-525-EN/

Online dictionary of the social sciences (n.d). Available from: [Accessed: 7 October 2005].

Herskovitz, J. (2000). Withstanding man’s demands” Advertising Age International, p.

Jaggar, A. M. (1988). Feminist politics and human nature. New Jersey: Rowman &

Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Laninhun, A. 2003. Communication for development purposes: A gender perspective.

In E. Soola (Ed.), Communication for development purposes. (pp. 72-86). Ibadan: Kraft Books Limited.

Okunna, C. S. (1992). Female faculty in journalism education in Nigeria: Implications

for the status of women in society. African Media Review,6(1), 47-68.

Okunna, C. S. (2005). Women: as ever ‘invisible in Nigeria’s news media.

International Journal of Media and Cultural Policies, 1(1),127-130

Olatunji, R. W., Ayodele, O.A.(2010). Gender portrayals in advertising:

implications for Nigeria’s development (pp.78-90). In Soola, E., Batta, H., and Nwabueze, C. (Eds.), Communication and Africa’s Development Crisis (Essay in Honour of Professor Des Wilson. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG

Olatunji, R. W. (2003). The impact of the structural adjustment programme on the

advertising industry in Nigeria 1986-1996.(n.d.). A thesis submitted to the Department of communication and language arts, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria for the Award of PhD ( Advertising) Degree.

Olatunji, R. W. (2010) Advertising, economy and societies in Africa: The Nigerian perspective. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG. (Germany).

Rose, K. (2014). Women in decision-making structures in media. In Monteiel, A. V. (Ed.). Media and gender: a scholarly agenda for the Global Alliance and media gender. Paris: UNESCO.

Shittu, W. (2015, September 9). Female gender and the law. The Punch.

Umeogu, B. and Ojiakor, I. (2012). Gender domination in Nigerian Public Relations.

Advances in Applied Sociology, 2(2), 149-154.

DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.22020

How to Cite
Williams Olatunji, R., Mary Akhagba , O., & Adeyinka Laninhun, B. (2016). Advertising Agencies Ownership and Management in Nigeria. What is the Level of Involvement of Female Professionals?. Postmodernism Problems, 6(3), 168-194. Retrieved from