Media Ecology – Conceptual and Content Dimensions

  • Dobrinka Peicheva South-West University
Keywords: media ecology, content-analysis, medialization, media literacy


The media are positioned as increasingly important factors in the people civilization formations, competing with the family environment, the education system and other socializing agents. The study of the content aspects of the media ecosystem and the attitudes created for its key manifestations presented in this article is the study of the real role of the media in contemporary Bulgarian society.

The purpose of this article is to to reveal the state of the media ecosystem, highlight its environmental problems and trends, and pave the way for future research by using the quantitative and qualitative methods (representative content-analytical research on 900 media units from traditional and online media in a special representative sample and a focused interview among 23 leading scientists and media practitioners).

It is an attempt to search for the answers to the key questions that the founder of the media ecology, Neil Postman (2006) puts, namely: What are the moral consequences? ; Are the consequences more humane or anti-human? "We, as a society, earn more than we lose, or lose more than we earn?


Altheide, D. (1995). An ecology of communication. Cultural formats of control. [An ecology of communication. Cultural formats of control]. New York: Aldine de Gruyte.

Anderson, C. (2013). Media ecosystems: Some notes toward a genealogy of the term and an application of it to journalism research.[Paper presentation] Paper presented at European Science Foundation (ESF) Exploratory Workshop (Mapping the digital news ecosystem: Professional journalism new producers and active audiences in the digital public sphere), Barcelona, Spain. Retrieved from

Anderson Chr. (2013). Media ecosystems: some notes toward a genealogy of the term and an application of it. Journalism Research [online] Available at:

Angelov, A. (2012). Ekolingvistika ili ekologia na zastrashenite ezitsi i lingvistika na zastrashenite ekosistemi. [Ecolinguistics or ecology of endangered languages and linguistics of endangered ecosystems]. Sofia.

Angova, St. (2018). Parvite onlayn medii: nova konfiguratsia na mediynia narativ i zhurnalisticheskite praktiki. [The first online media: a new configuration of media narrative and journalistic practices]. Problemi na postmodernostta, 8(1), 69-92. Retrieved from

Ayolov, P. (2018). „Krayat na istinata“i tehnologiyata na internet mediite [The end of the truth and technology of internet media]. Medialog, No.4

Barnes, S. B. (1996). Cyberspace: Creating paradoxes for the ecology of self. In L. Strate, R. Jacobson, & Gibson, S. B. (Eds.), Communication and cyberspace: Social interaction in an electronic environment. (pp. 193-216). Cresskill NJ: Hampton Press

Baum, J. (1996) Organizational ecology. In S. Clegg, C. Hardy, and W. R. Nord (Eds.), Handbook of Organization Studies. (pp. 77–114). London: Sage.

Baum, J. A. and Shipilov, A. V. (2006). Ecological approaches to organizations. In S. R. Clegg, C. Hardy, T. B. Lawrence, and W. R. Nord (Eds), Sage Handbook for Organization Studies (pp. 55–110). London: Sage Publications.

Bloxham, M. (2005). Mapping the modern media ecosystem. insight & research. Ball State University. Center for Media Design.

Boneva, T. (1997). Kulturna ekologia. [Cultural ecology] Sofia:Trayan Kolev.

Cavazza, F. (2012). An overview of the social media ecosysteм

Cerezo, P. (2017) White paper. The new digital media ecosystem

Clarysse, W. & Bruneel, M. (2014). Creating value in ecosystems: Crossing the chasm between knowledge and business ecosystems. Research Policy, 43(7), 1164-1176.

Crandall, H. & Cunningham, C. (2016). Media ecology and hashtag activism: #Kaleidoscope. Explorations in Media Ecology, 15(1), 22–32. doi: 10.1386 /eme. 15.1.21_1.

Dimmick, J., Feaster, J. Ch., Hoplamazian, G. J. (2010,05-18). News in the interstices: The niches of mobile media in space and time. New Media & Society, 13(1), 23–39.

Droitcour, B. (2014) Why I hate post-internet art.

why-i-hate-post-internet-art/. Read 10.6.2014. post/ 81297090352/why-i-hate-post-internet-art-by-brian-droitcour

Dulov, Vl. & Marinov, M. (2012). Kachestveni metodi v sotsiologiyata. [Quality methods in Sociology]. Blagoevgrad: SWU „Neofit Rilski“Publishing house. ISBN 978-954-680-793-9

Durkin, J., & Glaisyer, T. (2011). An information case study: Scranton. An industrial city with a media ecosystem yet to take advantage of digital opportunities.

Retrieved from OTI.

Erzikova, E. (2015). News Media Ecosystems and Population Dynamics: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. In Ch. Paterson, D. Lee, A. Saha, A. Zoellner (Еds.), Advancing media production research: Shifting sites, methods, and politics. Publisher: Palgrave Macmillian. DOI: 10.1057/9781137541949_6

Fuller, M. (2005). Media Ecologies: Materialist Energies in Art and Technoculture. Leonardo Series. MIT Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9780262062473.

Gencarelli, T. F. (2000). The intellectual roots of media ecology in the work and thought of Neil Postman. The New Jersey Journal of Communication, 8(1), 91-103.

Gencarelli, T. (2006). Perspectives on culture, technology, and communication: The media ecology tradition. Gencarelli NJ: Hampton.

Goddard, M., Parrika J. (2011). Unnatural ecologyes. The Fiberculture Journal, Issue 17.

Griffin, E. (2009). A First Look at Communication Theory. (7th ed.) New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill

Harris, R. (2009) Social media ecosystem mapped as a wiring diagram. Retrieved from http://, 2010.

Hildebrand, J. M. (2017). Modal media: connecting media ecology and mobilities research. Media, Culture & Society, 40(3), 348–364.

doi:10.1177/0163443717707343. ISSN 0163-4437.

Hearn, G. & Forth, M. (2007). Communicative ecologies. The Electronic Journal of Communication, 17(1-2).

Iliev, Al. (2013, 21.03). Potrebitelskoto sadarzhanie kato chast ot razshiryavashtata se mediyna ekosistema. 10-ti regionalen tehnologichen forum [Paper presentation]. Doklad na konferentsia „Telekomunikatsionnite i mediynite kompanii na praga na novi biznes modeli. [Consumer content as a part of the expanding media ecosystem. 10th Regional Technology Forum Conference Report “Telecommunications and Media Companies at the Threshold of New Business Models]. hotel Sheraton, Sofia.

Innis, H. (1951). The bias of communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Reprint, with an introduction by Paul Heyer and David Crowley, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6839-1

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press, (Rev. ed.- 2008). ISBN-10: 9780814742952; ISBN-13: 978-0814742952

Jenkins, H. (2001). Convergence? I Diverge. MIT Technology Review.

John, D. (June 2014). A media ecological analysis of do-it-yourself education: Exploring relationships between the symbolic and the material realms of human action". Explorations in Media Ecology, 13(2), 155–175. doi:10.1386/eme.13.2.155_1.

Keranova, D. (2018). Spiralata na cheteneto v edin postmoderen peyzazh. [The spiral of reading in a postmodern landscape]. Problemi na postmodernostta, 8(2), 153-167.

Retrieved from

King, Dzh. (2018). Sled aferata Feysbuk. Evrosayuzat zatyaga primkata s regulatsii sreshtu falshivite novini. [Following the Facebook scandal, the European Union is tightening its loop with regulations against fake news].

Kulevski, Tsv. (2013). Vlastta na mediynoto poslanie. Nevidimata raka na mediite. [The power of the media message."The invisible hand of the Media]. Sofia: UNSS, Nauchni trudove, Vol.3.

Kulevski, Tsv. (2015). Logika i argumentatsia na mediynata komunikatsia i dokumentalistika [Logic and argumentation on media komunication and documentary]. Sofia: Iztok-Zapad.

Kulevski, Tsv. (2007). Retorika i publichno poslanie. [Rhetoric and public message]. Sofia: Iztok – Zapad.

Lewis C. (2010). New journalism ecosystem thrives. Investigative Reporting Workshop. Retrieved from:

Lilova, D. (2011). Profesionalisti i amatyori onlayn [Professionals and amateurs online]. Seminar BG, No 6.

Retrieved from

Lin, Ju-P. (2014). "Review: The media ecosystem: What ecology can teach us about responsible media practice," Journal of Media Literacy Education, 6(1).

Available at:

López, A. (2012). The media ecosystem: What ecology can teach us аbout responsible media practice. Berkeley, CA: Evolver editions.

Lowrey, W. (2012). Journalism innovation and the ecology of news production: Institutional tendencies. Journalism and Communication Monographs, 14(4), 214–287.

Lowrey, W. (2013). The emergence and development of hyperlocal news websites: An organization ecology approach. [Paper presentation].Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Washington, DC.

Marinov, M. (2012). EVS - European Values Study 1999 - Bulgaria. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA3799 Data file Version 3.0.1, doi:10.4232/1.11526 , GESIS Data Archive for the Social Sciences 2012: (Co-author/s: Fotev, Georgy); Маrinov, М. (2015).EVS (2015): European Values Study Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008 (EVS 1981-2008) , GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA4804 Data file Version 3.0.0, doi:10.4232/1.12253 2015.

Marinov, M. (2015). A vision towards empirical data: Values in education a comparative analysis of focus groups and in-depth interviews in three Bulgarian universities. Postmodernism Problems, 5(3), 279-287.

Retrieved from

McCollough, K. & Anderson, C.W. (2013, July). The New Jersey media ecosystem: Distributed news in a digital age. Retrieved from:

McKibben, В. (2010). Deep economy, the end of nature, and eaarth: making a life on a tough new planet. Times Books.

McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding Media Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Meyrowitz, J. (1985). No sense of place. The impact of electronic media on social behavior. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195042313

Milberry, K. & Anderson, S. (2009). Open sourcing our way to an online commons: contesting corporate impermeability in the new media ecology. Journal of Communication Inquiry,33(4), 393–412.

CiteSeerX doi: 10.1177/0196859909340349

Milenkova,V., Peicheva, D., Marinov, M. (2018).Towards defining media socialization as a basis for digital society. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 6(2), 21-31.

Mineva, S., et al. (2014). Ekologia na virtualnite realnosti: shto e to to? [Ecology of virtual reality what is it]. Sofia: Proektoria.

Mineva, S. (2014). Relatsiyata ekologia – etika v konteksta na interdistsiplinarnostta v naukata. Nionalna konferentsia po etika: „Ekologicheka etika, priroda i ustoychivo razvitie na Bulgaria” [The relation of ecology and ethics in the context of interdistsiplinarity in science]. Nationalna Konferentsia on ethics“ Ecological ethics, nature and sustainable development of Bulgaria. Sofia University, November 20-21.

Mineva, S. (2015). Ekologia na virtualnite realnosti. [Ecology of virtual reality]. Sofia: Fondatsia "Ustoychivo razvitie na Bulgaria".

Mineva, S., et al. (2016). Ekologia na virtualnite realnosti: Kiberleksikon. [Ecology of virtual reality: Ciberlexicon.] Sofia: Glagolitsa. ISBN 978-619-156-118-6.

Mullen, M. (2006). Coming to terms with the future he foresaw: Marshall McLuhan's 'Understanding Media'. Technology and Culture, 47 (2), 373–380.

doi: 10.1353/tech.2006.0143. JSTOR 40061070.

Napoli, P., Stonbely, S., Friedland, L., Glaisyer, T., & Breitbart, J. (2012). Understanding media ecosystems: A review of the field and recommendations for a way forward. NewAmerica Foundation, 1-28.

Nardi, B. & O‘Day, V. (1999). Information ecologies: Using tehnology with heart. Boston MA: MIT Press.

Nystrom, C. L. (1973). Toward a science of media ecology: The formulation of integrated conceptual paradigms for the study of human communication systems (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(12), 7800 (UMI No. AAT 7412855).

Nystrom, C. L. (1979). Media ecology: Inquiries into the structure of communication environments. Unpublished manuscript. New York University.

Nystrom, C. L. (2000). Symbol, thought, and reality: The contributions of Benjamin Lee Whorf and Susanne K. Langer to media ecology. The New Jersey Journal of Communication, 8(1), 8-34.

Ong,W. (1982/2002). Orality and Literacy: The technologizing of the word. (2nd ed.). London, New York: Methuen, London, New York: Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-28129-6

Peace, A., Goodstadt, B. & Agarwal, M. (2011). Technology, business, & policy implications as the communications ecosystem moves from pots to pans. Media Law and Policy, 20, 47-269.

Peichev, D., Angova, St., Milenkova, V., Peicheva, D., Marinov, M. (2018). Knowledge-based management and media and information ecology skills. In N. Callaos, et al. Systemics, cybernetics and informatics. The 22nd World Multi-Conference. Orlando, Florida, USA.

Peicheva, D. & Raycheva, L. (2017). Framing political populism in contemporary media ecosystem. European Quarterly of Political Attitudes and Mentalities, 6,(4), 1-12.

Peicheva, D. & Milenkova, V. (2017). Knowledge Society and Digital Media Literacy: Foundations for Social Inclusion and Realization in Bulgarian Context. Calitatea Vieții, XXVIII(1). Romanian Academy Publishing House,

Peicheva, D. & Raycheva, D. (2017). Media ecology in the context of media convergence and hybridization. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 3(5). ISSN: 2394-7926

Peicheva D., Milenkova, V., Manov, B & Raycheva, L. (2017). The ICT, e-reading and media ecosystem. In Nadib C., Frederich W. (Eds). Society, Cybernetics and Informatics. Proceedings III S. The 11th International Multi Conference.

Pew Research Center (2010, January 11). How news happens: A study of the news ecosystem of one American city. Retrieved from:

Popova,V., Dimitrova, M. (2013). Ekolingvistika i medien ezik. [Ecolinguistics and media language]. LiterNet, 10(167).

Plugh, M. (2014). Global village: Globalization through a media ecology lens. Explorations in Media Ecology, 13(3–4). doi:10.1386/eme.13.3-4.219_1

Poell, T. (2014). Social media and the transformation of activist communication: exploring the social media ecology of the 2010 Toronto G20 protests. Information, Communication & Society, 17(6), 716–731. doi 10.1080/1369118x.2013.812674.

Polski, M., Gorman, L. (2012). Yuri Rozhdestvensky vs. MArshall McLuhan: A triumph vs. a vortex. Explorations in Media Ecology, 10(3–4), 263–278. doi:10.1386/eme.10.3-4.263_1.

Polski, M. (2013). Media Ecology Pedagogy-Art or Techne? MEA conference. Grand Rapids, MI.

Postman, N. (1973). Media Ecology: A Growing Perspective.Media Ecology Review. Vol. 3.

Postman, N. (1974). The ecology of learning. The English Journal, 63(4), 58–64. doi :10.2307/813650 – via JSTOR.

Postman, N. (2006). Media ecology education. Explorations in Media Ecology, 5(1), 5-14. doi:10.1386/eme.5.1.5 1

Postman, N. (2016). What is media ecology? Media Ecology Association. Retrieved 2

Raycheva, L. (2014). The challenges of media ecosystem to childhood. Postmodernism Problems, 4(2), 88-109.

Retrieved from

Raycheva, L. (2014, 31.12). Sastoyanie i perspektivi pred savremennata mediyna ekosistema”.Doklad na nauchnoprakticheska konferentsia „Mediite v Bulgaria: 25 godini po-kasno.[Composition and perspectives of contemporary media ecosystems]. ”Report of the media in v Bulgaria. Scientific Conference. Sofia: NBU

Raycheva, L. (2016). Predizvikatelstvata pred savremennata mediyna ekosistema [Challenges to today's media ecosystem] In P.Todorov (Ed.), Mission-to-business media. Sofia: UNSS.

Robert L. (2015). General systems theory and media ecology: parallel disciplines that inform each other. Explorations in Media Ecology, 14, 39–51. doi 10.1386/eme.14.1-2.39_1

Ruotsalainen, J. & Heinonen S. (2015). Media ecology and the future ecosystemic society. European Journal of Futures Research, 3(9).

Crossref DOI link:

Schultz, D. (2007). Snackbyte: A view of the ecosystem.


Scolari, C. A. (2012). Media ecology: exploring the metaphor to expand the theory. Communication Theory, 22(2), 204–225.

doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2012.01404.x. hdl :10230/25652. ISSN 1050-3293.

Soukup, P. (2017). A shifting meda eciology: What the age of Luther can teach us. Media Development, 64(2), 5–10.

Stephens, N. (2014). Toward a more substantive media ecology: Postman's metaphor versus Posthuman futures". International Journal of Communications, 8, 2027–2045.

Sternberg, J. (2002). "The Yin and Yang of media ecology" (PDF). MEA Convention Proceedings.

Serazio, M. (1994). Media Ecology and Generation Mash-Up Identity: The Technological Bias of Millennial Youth Culture. NCA 94th Annual Convention.

Strate, L. (2004). A media ecology review. Communication Research Trends, 23, ISSN 0144-4646.

Strate, L. (2006). Echoes and reflections: on media ecology as a field of study. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. ISBN 9781572737259. OCLC 631683671

Strate, L. (2008). Studying media as media: McLuhan and the media ecology approach. Media Tropesl, 1. 1-16.

Strate, L. (1996). Containers, computers and the media ecology of the city. Media ecology: A Journal of Intersections.Retrieved from


Strate, L., & Lum, C. M. (2000). Lewis Mumford and the ecology of technics. The New Jersey Journal of Communication, 8(1), 56-78.

Todorov, T. (2012). The media in a symbiosis of social and political monstrosity. In Bulgarian media: a map of conflicts. (pp. 35-38) Sofia: Foundation Media Democracy.

Todorov T. (2013). The flat world of Bulgarian media. Media and Public Communications, 16.

Todorov, T. (2018). Kritika na mediynia razum: ploski svetove i mehuri.[Critique of the media mind: Flat worlds and Bubbles]. In St. Angova et al. (Eds.) Mediyna sreda, publichna i strategicheska komunikatsia. (pp 323-328). Sofia: Izdatelski complex- UNSS.

Tsankova, Sv. (2008). Sindromat na gadnia svyat – proektsii v balgarskite vsekidnevnitsi. Medii i obshtestveni komunikatsii. [The nasty world syndrome - projections in Bulgarian daily newspapers. Media and public communications.] Sofia: Alma komunikatsia.

Tsankova, Sv. (2018). Regionalnata presa v Bulgaria – problemi i defitsiti. [The Regional Press in Bulgaria - Problems and Deficits. In St. Angova et al. (Eds.) Mediyna sreda, publichna i strategicheska komunikatsia.Sofia: Izdatelski complex- UNSS.

Tsvetkov, A. (2015). Protosotsiologia. [Protosociology]. Blagoevgrad: Universitetsko izdatelstvo „Neofit Rilski“. ISBN 978-954-00-0017-6

Tsvetkov, A. (2017). Sotsiologia na znanieto. [Sociology of knowledge]. Blagoevgrad: SWU „Neofit Rilski“Publishing house., ISBN 978-954-00-0144-9

Tsvetkova, M. (1999). Komunikatsionna ekologia. [Communicative ecology) Kurs ot lektsii in SWU. available

Tsvetkova, M. (2000). Zashto ni e nuzhna ekologia na informatsiyata?. [Why we need an ecology of information?]. Monitor

Tsvetkova, M. (2001). Mediite – ekologichen filtar sreshtu bezumnite namerenia [Media - an environmental filter against insane intentions]. Vezni, 2001, Vol. 9, No 1, 104-107.

ISSN 0861-606X

Tsvetkova, M. (2011). Paradoksite v povedenieto na savremennia chitatel: primeri ot Bulgaria. Ekologichnoto chitatelskoto povedenie.[ Paradoxes in the behavior of the contemporary reader: examples from Bulgaria. Environmental Reading Behavior]. Horizonti, No 1. ISSN 1314-5169.

VanDijk, J. (2012). The network society. (3rd ed.). Sage Publications

Velinova, N. (2015). Harakteristiki na mediynata ekosistema v Bulgaria prez prizmata na protestite (2012-2013).[ Characteristics of the media ecosystem in Bulgaria through the lens of protests]. Newmedia21. Retrieved from harakteristiki-na-medijnata-ekosistema-v-balgariya-prez-prizmata-na-protestite-2012-2013-g/

Williams, B. & Delli Carpini, M. (2011). After broadcast news: Media regimes, democracy, and the new information environment. Cambridge University Press.

How to Cite
Peicheva, D. (2019). Media Ecology – Conceptual and Content Dimensions . Postmodernism Problems, 9(1), 7-61. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>